In the worlds collective consciousness, the word Nazi is synonymous with evil. It is widely understood that the Nazis ideologynationalism, anti-Semitism, the autarkic ethnic state, the Führer principleled directly to the furnaces of Auschwitz. It is not nearly as well understood that Communism led just as inexorably, everywhere on the globe where it was applied, to starvation, torture, and slave-labor camps. Nor is it widely acknowledged that Communism was responsible for the deaths of some 150 million human beings during the twentieth century. The world remains inexplicably indifferent and uncurious about the deadliest ideology in history.
For evidence of this indifference, consider the unread Soviet archives. Pavel Stroilov, a Russian exile in London, has on his computer 50,000 unpublished, untranslated, top-secret Kremlin documents, mostly dating from the close of the Cold War. He stole them in 2003 and fled Russia. Within living memory, they would have been worth millions to the CIA; they surely tell a story about Communism and its collapse that the world needs to know. Yet he cant get anyone to house them in a reputable library, publish them, or fund their translation. In fact, he cant get anyone to take much interest in them at all.
Then theres Soviet dissident Vladimir Bukovsky, who once spent 12 years in the USSRs prisons, labor camps, and psikhushkaspolitical psychiatric hospitalsafter being convicted of copying anti-Soviet literature. He, too, possesses a massive collection of stolen and smuggled papers from the archives of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, which, as he writes, contain the beginnings and the ends of all the tragedies of our bloodstained century. These documents are available online at bukovsky-archives.net, but most are not translated. They are unorganized; there are no summaries; there is no search or index function. I offer them free of charge to the most influential newspapers and journals in the world, but nobody wants to print them, Bukovsky writes. Editors shrug indifferently: So what? Who cares?
The originals of most of Stroilovs documents remain in the Kremlin archives, where, like most of the Soviet Unions top-secret documents from the post-Stalin era, they remain classified. They include, Stroilov says, transcripts of nearly every conversation between Gorbachev and his foreign counterpartshundreds of them, a near-complete diplomatic record of the era, available nowhere else. There are notes from the Politburo taken by Georgy Shakhnazarov, an aide of Gorbachevs, and by Politburo member Vadim Medvedev. There is the diary of Anatoly ChernyaevGorbachevs principal aide and deputy chief of the body formerly known as the Cominternwhich dates from 1972 to the collapse of the regime. There are reports, dating from the 1960s, by Vadim Zagladin, deputy chief of the Central Committees International Department until 1987 and then Gorbachevs advisor until 1991. Zagladin was both envoy and spy, charged with gathering secrets, spreading disinformation, and advancing Soviet influence.
When Gorbachev and his aides were ousted from the Kremlin, they took unauthorized copies of these documents with them. The documents were scanned and stored in the archives of the Gorbachev Foundation, one of the first independent think tanks in modern Russia, where a handful of friendly and vetted researchers were given limited access to them. Then, in 1999, the foundation opened a small part of the archive to independent researchers, including Stroilov. The key parts of the collection remained restricted; documents could be copied only with the written permission of the author, and Gorbachev refused to authorize any copies whatsoever. But there was a flaw in the foundations security, Stroilov explained to me. When things went wrong with the computers, as often they did, he was able to watch the network administrator typing the password that gave access to the foundations network. Slowly and secretly, Stroilov copied the archive and sent it to secure locations around the world.
Read the entire article on the City Journal website (new window will open).